Break Up Paradigms: Beyond Prospective and Retrospective Romper Paradigmas: Além do Prospetivo e Retrospetivo

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Sócrates Vargas Naranjo - Corresponding Author
Ana Neves
José Miguel Silva
André Mendes
Dejanabú Cassama
Joana Cochicho
Maxime Suleac
Jessenia Chinchilla Mata
Nídia Calado
Ana Mateus


For a clinic study to be successful, is important to choose of the correct study design to use to answer the research question. It will depend on the type of data analysis and conclusions, as well as the internal and external validity of the work. In many studies, it is mentioned that the studies are prospective or retrospective, but at present these terms should only be used to indicate how the data were collected and not as the study design being undertaken. This paper aims to describe study designs in a quick and clear manner, giving a broader view beyond the prospective and retrospective.

Keywords: Clinical Studies; Epidemiologic Research Design; Observational Studies; Randomized Controlled Trials

Article Details

Vargas Naranjo S, Neves A, Silva JM, Mendes A, Cassama D, Cochicho J, et al. Break Up Paradigms: Beyond Prospective and Retrospective: Romper Paradigmas: Além do Prospetivo e Retrospetivo. Gaz Med [Internet]. 2019 Dec. 30 [cited 2024 Jun. 18];6(4). Available from:

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